As usual, we’ll start with a quote from Jeff Tomkins:
Second, the fusion-like sequence was very degenerate and only 70% similar to what one would expect of a pristine fusion sequence of the same size. Even if you assume an evolutionary timeline of up to six million years since the fusion event occurred, the data do not match up with known mutation rates or the variability found in human DNA.
Jeff Tomkins – More DNA Evidence Against Human Chromosome Fusion
The implicit assumption underlying this statement is that Jeff Tomkins believes that the sequences we find at the fusion site were – no more than six million years ago – pristine, perfect telomere repeats, and that they have since mutated into the “degenerate” arrays we see today. This assumption is utterly wrong-headed.
What he is ignoring is the fact that these “degenerate” arrays are found immediately adjacent to the telomeres in virtually all of the human chromosomes. What the chromosome 2 fusion sequence looks like to any reasonable, well-informed person is two chromosomes whose telomeres have been depleted to the point where these subtelomeric “degenerate” arrays are exposed, and the telomeres are no longer protecting the chromosomes from fusion.
First, here are some “degenerate” TTAGGG repeats, found at the “end” of some of our chromosomes:
>chromosome:GRCh38:4:190122446:190122745:1 ATGAGGGTTGGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTGAGGGTGAGGGTGAGGGTGAGGGTGAGG GTGAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGGTTAGGGTCAGGGTCAGGGTCAGGGTCAGGGTCAGGGGTAG GGTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTCAGGG TCAGGGTCAGGGTCAGGGTCAGGGTCAGGGTTAGGGGTTAGGGGTTAGGGTCAGGGTTAG GGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTTTAGGGTTAGGGTTGGGGTTGGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTT
>chromosome:GRCh38:1:248946010:248946309:1 GGGTTAGGGTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGGTTAGGGTTA GGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAG GGTTAGGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGGTTAGGGTTGGGGTTGGGGTTGGGGTTGGGGTTGGGGTT GGGGTTGGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTT AGGGTGTTAGGGTGTTAGGGTGTTAGGGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGG
>chromosome:GRCh38:X:156030051:156030350:1 TGGGGTTAGGGTTAAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGGTTAGGGGTTAGGGTTGGGGTTGGGGTTAG GGTTAGGGTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGGTTAGGGGTTAGGGTAGGGTTAGGGTGAG GGTGAGGGTGAGGGTGAGGGTGAGGGTGAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAG GGGTTAGGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGGTTAGGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGGGTTAGG GTTAGGGTTAGGGGTTAGGGGTTAGGGGTTAGGGGTTAGGGTAGGGTAGGGTAGGGTAGG
Now here are some of the reverse motifs – CCCTAA – found at the “beginning” of our chromosomes:
>chromosome:GRCh38:1:10160:10459:1 CCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAAC CCTAACCCTAACCCCTAACCCTAACCCTAAACCCTAAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCT AACCCTAACCCCAACCCCAACCCCAACCCCAACCCCAACCCCAACCCTAACCCCTAACCC TAACCCTAACCCTACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCCTAACCC CTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCCTAACCCTAACCCTAAC
>chromosome:GRCh38:9:10000:10299:1 NTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCAACCCCACCCCAACCCCAACCCCAACCCAACCCTA ACCCTAACCCTAACCCAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCAACCCTCACCCTCACCCTCAC CCTCACCCTCACCCTCACCCTCACCCTAACCCTACCCTAACCCCTAACCCCTAACCCCTA ACCCCTAACCCTTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCCTAACCC CTAACCCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCCTAACCCCTAACCTCTAACCCT
>chromosome:GRCh38:18:10270:10569:1 TAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTACCCTAACCCTACCCTACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAA CCCTTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTACCCCAACCCCAACCCCAACCCCAACCCCAA CCCCAACCCCAACCCCAACCCTACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAAACCCCAACCCTAA CCCCTAACCCCTACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTA CCCTAACCCTACCCTACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTAACCCTTAACCCTAACCCTAAC
As you can see, these are not perfect telomeric repeats, and it is quite easy to visualise the resulting sequence if one of these “degenerate” forward arrays fused head-to-head with one of these “degenerate” reverse arrays.
It would look something like the picture that Jeff Tomkins himself has provided: